Civil society organisations provide comprehensive data on hate crimes, and they cast light on phenomena that are sometimes not reflected clearly in official data. The fact that there are observatories, NGOs and unofficial bodies improves knowledge of the crimes committed, improves data quality and provides useful clues to analyse the phenomenon seriously. Bearing in mind the poor quality of the OSCE data, constrained by lack of common concepts, standard descriptions, etc… qualitative analysis on the data in this study under the heading “civil society” acquires more importance.
This study includes hate incidents: 5,990 between 2015 and mid-2020. The evolution over time shows a downward trend between 2016 and 2017, but an upward trend from 2018 to 2019. The pandemic and ending the survey in June negatively affect the figures for 2020.
Table 5: Yearly hate crime incidents by country. Civil Society Data, 2015-june 2020
Figure 6: Annual evolution of hate incidents by country according to Civil Society, 2015-June 2020
Table 6: Total hate crime incidents by type of motivation and country. Civil Society Data
|Anti-Christianism and other religions||172||199||767||3||127||199|
|Racism and xenophobia||60||62||60||35||609||216|
|Crimes against sexual orientation||291||303||48||7||86||179|
|Victims of terrorism||0||109||0||0||0||1|
|Attacks against the rule of law||0||70||0||0||0||1|
|Persons with disabilities||0||1||0||0||44||4|
Figure 7: Total hate incidents by country according to Civil Society data
Figure 8: Total hate incidents by country. Civil Society Data
* Severe data deficit on hate crimes in Poland and Hungary due to a lack of monitoring and observatories.