We have highlighted the general under-notification of hate incidents. Furthermore, Enrique Baca states that a good understanding of the phenomenon of social hate is required, and that hate as an interpersonal dynamic is never anonymous; personal hate is rarely a social construct. At least not consciously, because the off-the-radar data hides undetected yet deeply-rooted prejudice.
In this study, José Lázaro examines the hypothesis on the roots of hate, common to the most diverse forms of personal and group hatred, i.e. the origin of any manifestation of human hate, making it easier to describe and then take public action.
In the medium term, scientific study could help to clarify grey areas for real hate crimes, because the multiple motives behind prejudice and social intolerance combine in the most serious crimes, sometimes with interpersonal hate, and lead to an imprecise, heterogeneous and contradictory approach by the police and the judiciary system.
There are forms of intolerance (racist, xenophobe, religious, political…) that start with prejudice and end up with hate killings or even the setting up of terrorist groups.
There are fewer conscious forms of prejudice concerning human dignity: disability, appearance, age, social vulnerability, decrepitude or poverty that also arouse scorn and hate, but these rarely lead to the creation of organised groups to launch attacks. These forms, which are less visible, appear in Off the Radar.
Hatred of the poor
Aporophobia (from the Greek ἄπορος and φόβος) is fear and rejection of poverty and poor people.
The notion of aporophobia was coined by the philosopher Adela Cortina, Professor of Ethics and Political Philosophy at the University of Valencia, to differentiate it from xenophobia and racism, as this form of rejection is based on the fact that these people do not have any possessions, economic resources and/or social and media weight.
Hatento Observatory: an Observatory of Hate Crimes against Homeless People. According to its data, 47% of homeless people say they have suffered at least one hate incident or crime and almost 25% have been physically attacked due to intolerance and scorn. This violence is much greater in the case of homeless women: 60% have been victims of hate crime.
1. Fans of Sparta urinate on a woman begging in Rome (2016)
3. Homeless person beaten up by youngsters in Granada. Testimony of the homeless person (2015)
Discrimination for reasons of age
Although most carers in nursing homes have worked heroically, it is true that abusive treatment of particularly vulnerable persons has taken place in some centres, reported by relatives or even staff. Residents in care homes do not usually have access to reporting channels due to their vulnerability and degree of dependence.
France: The NGO “Les petites frères des pauvres” has documented this abusive treatment of elderly people, particularly in the wake of Covid.
Hate towards people with disabilities
People with disabilities or illnesses are rejected and discriminated against by some individuals, sometimes leading to harassment and violence.
According to a survey in France, persons with disabilities are more likely to say that they have been victims of physical, sexual and verbal violence in the two years prior to answering the questionnaire, i.e. 25.2% (against 22.7% of the total population aged 18-64). 7.3% suffered physical and/or sexual violence (against 5.1% of people who did not declare a disability), and many were exposed to threats (5.8% by others) and 15.% to insults (a proportion comparable to the population that did not declare a disability).
Source: EL MUNDO
48 HOURS OF TORTURE FOR J., THE PSYCHICALLY DISABLED PERSON WAS TATTOOED AND HAD HIS LIPS STITCHED UP AND STUCK TOGETHER. Seven young men took him to a flat and tormented him. J. offered them money and they signed a contract he found on the internet. He says he did it “to get to know people”
Fear/hate of people who do not fit into ‘normal’ profiles
There are cases of discrimination against people for their physical appearance or disabilities, for example, if they have had a face transplant.
The social stigma of obesity
The concept of fat-shaming is used to describe behaviour that discriminates, commoditises and undervalues overweight people.
The STOP Gordofobia platform, which has more than 105,000 followers, highlights the stigmatisation of overweight people. It reports attacks, discrimination, bullying of minors and discrimination in the workplace due to a notion of beauty that excludes some people.
The actress Itziar Castro was attacked on social media by “fat-shamers” after posting a photo of herself posing in the Berlin Film Festival (EITB 2017)